An Indian Civil Society Initiative to Understand India's GHG Emission Estimates

An Indian Civil Society Initiative to Understand India's GHG Emission Estimates

Partner Institutions


Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW)

The Council on Energy, Environment and Water is one of South Asia’s leading not-for-profit policy research institutions. CEEW addresses pressing global challenges through an integrated and internationally focused approach. It prides itself on the independence of its high quality research, develops partnerships with public and private institutions, and engages with wider public. CEEW was ranked in 2015 the best in South Asia in two categories three years running (Global Go To Think Tank Index); among the top 100 out of 6846 think-tanks in nine categories. CEEW has also been rated as India’s top climate change think-tank in 2012 and 2013 as per the ICCG Climate Think Tank’s standardised rankings.

CEEW has led the  exercise in estimating GHG emissions from  industrial energy consumption, along with industrial process and product use (IPPU) - making full use of the existing institutions and data source within the country. Industries contribute approximately one fourth of the country’s total GHG emissions and are fertile grounds for mitigation actions.


It provides estimates for a time series from 2005 to 2015, and are disaggregated at the sector and sub-sector level as per the IPCC guidelines (2006). This independent assessment complements the existing efforts by the national agencies, as it identifies potential data gaps, and other challenges in order to streamline the estimation process on an annual basis.



The international Maze and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) is the global leader in agricultural research for development in wheat and maize and wheat-and maize-based farming systems. CIMMYT works throughout the developing world with hundreds of partners to sustainably increase the productivity of maize and wheat systems to improve global food security and livelihoods while sustaining natural resources. An international, not-for-profit organization, CIMMYT is a member of the CGIAR Consortium. CIMMYT receives support from national governments, foundations, development banks and other public and private agencies.

Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy, Bangalore (CSTEP)

The Center for Study of Science, Technology and Policy (CSTEP) is a not-for-profit research organisation incorporated in 2005 u/s 25 of The Companies Act, 1956. CSTEP is recognised as a Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.  As one of the largest think tanks in South Asia, its mission is to enrich policy-making with innovative approaches using science and technology for a sustainable, secure and inclusive society. CSTEP has grown to become a multi-disciplinary policy research organisation in the areas of Energy, Infrastructure, Materials, Climate Adaptation and Security Studies.

As a part of the India GHG Platform, CSTEP has  built a bottom-up time-series (2005 to 2015)  of GHG emission estimations and compared the results with the Ministry of Environment Forests and Climate Change MoEFCC’s national inventories for 2007 and 2010 for the following sectors (as defined in the IPCC 2006 methodology):

  • 1A1- Energy Industries, including Electricity Generation and Heat Production (1A1a)

  • 1A3 Transport, including civil aviation, road transport, railways, water borne navigation and other transportation (1A3a-e)

  • 1A4, Other sectors, which includes commercial, institutional, residential and agricultural/forestry/fishing/fish farms (1A4a-c)

  • 1B, Fugitive Emissions from Solid Fuels, Oil and Natural Gas and Others (IB1-IB)

ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability

ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability is a leading association of more than 1000 metropolises, cities, urban regions and towns across the world. The association works with Member cities through a network of 15 offices and global centres that hold technical expertise and experience. ICLEI South Asia - the South Asian arm of ICLEI, aims to build and serve a regional network of local governments to achieve sustainable cities through local initiatives in the region. ICLEI's projects and campaigns cover a broad range of agendas that include building low-carbon, resilient, eco-mobile, biodiverse and smart cities, among others. The India Platform for GHG Emission Estimation and Analysis project is an integral part of ICLEI’s Low-carbon City Agenda. As part of this multi-institution platform, ICLEI South Asia is leading preparation of the GHG emission estimations for the “waste” sector, in line with the country’s national communication to UNFCCC and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Vasudha Foundation

Vasudha Foundation, set up in 2010, is a not for profit organization, working in the clean energy and climate policy space.  In the short span of 5 plus years, has worked on a wide range of projects including, the facilitation in the preparation of state climate action plans of a few states in India, helping a few districts in the preparation of its district energy plans and in working to develop business models for energy access solutions, which go beyond catering to just lighting needs of communities.  The organization is also actively involved and engaged in the climate negotiations that take place under the aegis of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and also other multi-lateral forums such as the G-8, G-20, Convention on Bio-Diversity to name a few. Vasudha foundation is the Secretariat and Overall Coordination incharge for this project: Vasudha Foundation is equipped with technical expertise who have worked on GHG emission estimations to be full time on the project coordination.

The World Resources Institute

WRI is a global research organization that spans more than 50 countries, with offices in the United States, China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and more. WRI more than 450 experts and staff work closely with leaders to turn big ideas into action to sustain our natural resources—the foundation of economic opportunity and human well-being. Our work focuses on six critical issues at the intersection of environment and development: climate, energy, food, forests, water, and cities and transport. ( WRI’s role on the GHG India Project Platform is that of the Peer Reviewer in addition to providing overall technical advice to help improve the quality of top-down emission estimations for all sectors that are being recreated.

Funder for GHG Platform India

Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation seeks to facilitate India’s transition to a sustainable energy future by aiding the design and implementation of policies in the following sectors: clean power, energy efficiency, sustainable urban transport, climate policy and clean energy finance.

Other Experts

Dr.Mahadeswara Swamy

Consultant Scientist & the Former Deputy Director


Dr Swamy is consultant scientist and the former Deputy Director, Animal Bio-products Lab, CSIR –CLRI. He has more than two decades of experience in Research and Development on Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHGs) in the Agriculture sector. Started with rice paddies (CSIR methane campaign, 1991) later changed over to Indian Livestock sector and prepared National inventories (CSIR (1992), ALGAS (1997). As Principal investigator (2001 – 2006) under NATCOM I (India’s Initial communication to UNFCCC project ), he played a key role in preparation of All India (state wise) inventory ( emission coefficients, uncertainty reduction, mitigation options) and later NATCOM II (Tamil Nadu) as Principal Investigator / Expert consultant to CSIR-CLRI, Chennai (2008 to 2011). Recently completed the GHGs inventory for Bihar livestock under the project. ‘Develop a low carbon development pathway for the state of Bihar’ sponsored by INTER COOPERATION SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT INDIA (ICSD). He is associated with India GHG platform as a sector expert for the estimation of GHG emissions from Livestock, part of the AFOLU sector.

Dr.Sudha Padmanabha

Independent Climate Expert


Dr.Sudha Padmanabha is an independent climate expert, also associated with Fair Climate Network. Sudha is a climate expert and a CDM Specialist working in India for various organisations such as FCN, which is a network of grass root level NGOs. Her focus is on reaching to the rural poor of India through carbon revenue for implementation of decentralized renewable energy, and land use based agriculture and forestry projects. In so far, she is managing a portfolio of 32 projects, which involves identification of the feasible projects for the communities in the region, registration as carbon mitigation projects and monitoring and issuance of carbon credits after implementation by the NGOs. She is also working in India on REDD+ projects and Fair Trade certification for community owned projects. She is a member of Gold Standard’s Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) for the i. energy and ii. Land Use and Forestry Sector. She holds a Doctorate degree in Botany and was actively involved in research on forestry mitigation projects and as head of CDM Division for a French renewable energy company. She is associated with the India GHG platform as a sector expert for the estimation of GHG emissions and removals from the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry Sector.

Dr.T.K. Adhya

Ex-Director of Central Rice Research Institute


Dr T.K. Adhya, Ex-Director, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (Orissa) is presently Professor, School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. He also holds the post of Director, South Asian Nitrogen Centre, New Delhi. He has contributed to India's first NATCOM on GHG and was invited to the elite panel of reviewers of the IPCC database and methodologies on GHGs by WMO/UNEP. He was a consultant to UNFCCC and is also the author/co-author of several international reports published by UNEP, Nairobi, SACEP, Colombo, World Resources Institute, Paris, FAO, Rome and ISRIC, Netherlands. Fellow of major science academies of the country, Prof. Adhya has been the recipient of several awards including ICAR Norman Borlaug Award, the highest award in agriculture in the country, for providing a breakthrough for agriculture through a new insight that has created high potential value for future. He is associated with the India GHG platform as a sector expert for the estimation of GHG emissions from Agriculture , part of the AFOLU sector.